ARCHIVED: Statutory Protection for Databases and Compilations: A Resource Guide

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Statutory Protection for Databases and Compilations:  A Resource List
Compiled by Samuel E. Trosow (strosow@library.berkeley.edu)

U.S. Database Bills and Congressional Committee Reports (see http://thomas.loc.gov for text of bills, Committee Reports, References in Congressional Record and status report)  

  • Database and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act, H.R. 3531, 104th Congress (1996). (no Committee Report).
  • Collections of Information Antipiracy Act, H.R. 2652, 105th Congress. House Report 105-525, May 12, 1998.  
  • Collections of Information Antipiracy Act, H.R. 354, 106th Congress. House Report 106-349, Part I, September 30, 1999.
  • Consumer and Investor Access to Information Act, H.R. 1858, 106th Congress. House Report 106-350, Part I, September 30, 1999.

U.S. Congressional Hearings

United States Congress. (1986). OTA Report on Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary; and the Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice of the House Committee on the Judiciary on the Impact of Technological Change on the Legal System for the Protection of Intellectual Property. 99th Congress, 2nd Session (April 16, 1986). Senate Hearing 99-919. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office. (OTA Joint Hearing)

United States Congress. House Committee on the Judiciary. (1997). Hearing on H.R. 2652, the Collection of Information Antipiracy Act. Before the Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property of the House Committee on the Judiciary, 105th Congress (October 23, 1997, February 12, 1998). Witness list and prepared testimony available online at http://www.house.gov/judiciary/41110.htm and http://www.house.gov/judiciary/41142.htm.

United States Congress. House Committee on the Judiciary. (1999). Hearing on H.R. 354, the "Collections of Information Antipiracy Act," before the House Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property of the House Committee on the Judiciary, 106th Congress (March 18, 1999). Witness list and prepared testimony available online at http://www.house.gov/judiciary/106-ct18.htm.

United States Congress. House Committee on Commerce. (1999). Hearing on H.R. 1858 the Consumer and Investor Access to Information Act of 1999. Before the Subcommittee on Finance and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Commerce House of Representatives. (June 30, 1999). Transcript available online at http://www.house.gov/commerce/sublist.htm.

Selected United States Case Law

  • Bellsouth Advertising & Publishing, Corp. v. Donnelley Information Publishing, Inc. 999 F.2d 1436 (11th Cir. 1993).  
  • CCC Information Services, Inc. v. Maclean Hunter Market Reports, Inc. 44 F.3d 61 (2d Cir. 1994).
  • Feist Publications Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co. 499 U.S. 340 (1991).  
  • Financial Information, Inc. v. Moody's Investors Service, Inc., 808 F.2d 204 (2d Cir. 1986).
  • Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises, 471 U.S. 539 (1985).  
  • Hoehling v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 618 F.2d 972 (2d Cir. 1980).
  • International News Service, Inc. v. Associated Press, 248 U.S. 215 (1918).  
  • Key Publications, Inc. v. Chinatown Today Publishing Enterprises, Inc., 945 F.2d 509 (2d Cir. 1991).  
  • Kregos v. Associated Press, 937 F.2d 700 (2d Cir. 1991).  
  • Matthew Bender & Co. v West Publishing, 158 F.3d 674 (2d. Cir. 1998); cert. den. 522 U.S. 3732.  
  • National Basketball Association v. Motorola, 105 F.3d 841 (2d Cir. 1996).  
  • National Rifle Ass'n v. Handgun Control Federation, 15 F.3d 559 (6th Cir. 1994).  
  • ProCD, Inc. v. Zeidenberg, 86 F.3d 1447 (7th Cir. 1996).  
  • Victor Lalli Enterprises, Inc. v. Big Red Apple, Inc. 936 F.2d 671 (2d Cir 1991). 
  • Warren Publishing Inc. v. Microdos Data Corp., 115 F.3d 1509 (11th Cir. 1995) (en banc) 
  • West Publishing Co. v mead Data Cental Inc. 799 F.2d 1219 (8th Cir. 1986).  
General U.S. Policy Documents

United States. Copyright Office. (1997). Report on Legal Protection for Databases, available at http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/reports. (visited May 15, 2000).

United States Congress. Office of Technology Assessment. (1986). Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information. Washington, D.C.: Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment. (OTA Report)

United States. The White House. (1996). A FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL ELECTRONIC COMMERCE. Available online at http://www.iitf.nist.gov/eleccomm/ecomm.htm. (visited May 15, 2000).

United States Department of Commerce. Information Infrastructure Task Force. (1995). Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure: The Report of the Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights. (The "White Paper" is available online at http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/com/doc/ipnii/). (visited May 15, 2000).

United States. Department of Commerce. (1998). Letter from Andrew J. Pincus, General Counsel of the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, to Senator Patrick J. Leahy, Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary (Aug. 4, 1998).

United States. Federal Trade Commission. (1998). Letter from Robert Pitofsky, Chair of the Federal Trade Commission, to Tom Bliley, Chair of the House Committee on Commerce (Sept. 28, 1998).

United States. Department of Justice. (1998). Memorandum from William Michael Treanor, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of the Deputy Ass't. Att'y. Gen., to William R. Marshall, Associate White House Counsel, "Constitutional Concerns Raised by the Collections of Information Antipiracy H.R. 2652" (July 28, 1998).

Conferences and Proceedings

Committee on Issues in the Transborder Flow of Scientific Data, U.S. National Committee for CODATA, and National Research Council. (1997). Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. National Academy Press. Available online at http://www.nap.edu/books/0309056357/html/. (visited May 8, 2000).

National Research Council. Committee for a Study on Promoting Access to Scientific and Technical Data for the Public Interest. (1999). A Question of Balance: Private Rights and the Public Interest in Scientific and Technical Databases. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. Available online at http://www.nap.edu/books/0309068258/html/. (visited May 8, 2000).

National Research Council. Committee for a Study on Promoting Access to Scientific and Technical Data for the Public Interest. (1999). Proceedings of the Workshop on Promoting Access to Scientific and Technical Data For The Public Interest: An Assessment Of Policy Options. January 14-15, 1999. Available online at http://www.nap.edu/html/proceedings_sci_tech/. (NRC Proceedings") (visited May 8, 2000).

European Commission and WIPO Documents

Commission of the European Communities. (1992). Proposal for a Council Directive on the Legal Protection of Databases. COM (92) 24 final - SYN 393, art 1.

Commission of the European Communities. (1996). Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the Legal Protection of Databases. 1996 O.J. (L 77) 20. ("Final EC Directive").

Commission of the European Communities. (1996). Proposal Submitted by the European Community and its Member States to the World Intellectual Property Organization Committee of Experts on a Possible Protocol to the Berne Convention. Sixth Session, Geneva. WIPO Doc. BCP/CE/VI/13, February 1-9, 1996.

Glazer, Mitch. (1999). "Legislation Under Consideration by the Congress of the United States of America Regarding the Protection of Databases." International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Intellectual Property. Geneva, September 14 to 16, 1999. WIPO/EC/CONF/99/SPK/22-B. Available online at http://ecommerce.wipo.int/meetings/1999/papers/pdf/mille.pdf. (visited May 15, 2000).

Mille, Antonio. (1999). Paper Presented to Protection of Databases Workshop. International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Intellectual Property. Geneva, September 14 to 16, 1999. WIPO/EC/CONF/99/SPK/22-C/e. Available online at http://ecommerce.wipo.int/meetings/1999/papers/pdf/mille.pdf. (visited May 15, 2000).

Reinbothe, Jorge. (1999). Paper Presented to Protection of Databases Workshop. International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Intellectual Property. Geneva, September 14 to 16, 1999. WIPO/EC/CONF/99/SPK/22-A. Available online at http://ecommerce.wipo.int/meetings/1999/papers/pdf/reinboth.pdf. (visited May 15, 2000).

United States. (1996). Proposal of the United States of America on Sui Generis Protection of Databases. Geneva, May 22-24, 1996. WIPO Doc. BCP/CE/VII-2/INR/CE/VI-2. May 20, 1996. (visited May 15, 2000).

World Intellectual Property Organization. (1996). Basic Proposals for the Substantive Provisions of the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Databases. Memorandum Prepared by the Chairman of the Committee of Experts, August 30, 1996 to be considered by the Diplomatic Conference on certain Copyright and Neighboring rights Questions. Geneva, Switzerland, December 22-20, 1996. WIPO Doc. CRNR/DC/6. Available online at http://www.wipo.org/eng/ diplconf/6dc_sta.htm. For a complete list of the 12/96 WIPO conference documents, see http://www.wipo.org/eng/diplconf/. (visited May 15, 2000).

Selected Articles

Browning, John. (1996). "Cyber View: Playing Facts and Loose." Scientific American 30: 32.

Davison, Marc. (1998). " Sui Generis or Too Generous: Legislative Protection of Databases, its Implications for Australia and Some Suggestions for Reform. University of New South Wales Law Journal 21 (Summer): 729-749.

Denicola, Robert C. (1981). "Copyight in Collections of Facts: A Theory for the Protection of Nonfiction Literary Works." Columbia Law Review 81: 516.

Dreyfuss, Rochelle Cooper. (1988). "Information Products: A Challenge to Intellectual Property Theory." N.Y.U. Journal of International Law and Policy 20:897.

Gardner, William and Joseph Rosenbaum. (1998). "Database Protection and Access to Information, Science 281: 786-87.

Geller, Paul Edward. (1991). "Copyright in Factual Compilations: U.S. Supreme Court Decides Feist Case." International Review of Industrial Property and Copyright Law. 22:2.

Ginsburg, Jane C. (1992). "Creation and Commercial Value: Copyright Protection of Works of Information." Columbia Law Review 90: 1865.

Ginsburg, Jame C. (1997). "Copyright, Common Law, and Sui Generis Protection of Databases in the United States and Abroad." 66 University of Cincinnati Law Review 66: 151.

Haungs, Michael J. (1990). "Copyright of Factual Compilations: Public Policy and the First Amendment." Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 23: 347.

Hayden, John. (1991). "Copyright Protection of Computer Databases After Feist." Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 5 (Fall): 215-243.

Heller, Michael A. (1998). "The Tragedy of the Anticommons: Property in the Transition from Marx to Markets." Harvard Law Review 111: 621.

Hughes, Jean and Weightman, Elizabeth. (1992). "E.C. Database Protection: Fine Tuning the Commission's Proposal. European Intellectual Property Review 14: 147.

Hunsaker, Gregory M. (1997). " The European Database Directive: Regional Stepping Stone to an International Model?" Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journa l 7: 697.

Kaye, Laurence M. (1985) "The proposed E.U. Directive for the Legal Protection of Databases: A Cornerstone for the Information Society." European Intellectual Property Review 12: 583.

Lavenue, Lionel M. (1997). "Database Rights and Technical Data Rights: The Expansion of Intellectual Property for the Protection of Databases." Santa Clara Law Review 38 (Winter): 1-63.

Litman, Jessica. (1992). "After Feist." University of Dayton Law Review 17: 607.

Longdin. Louie. (1997). "Copyright Protection for Computerized Compilations: A Cautionary Tale from New Zealand." International Journal of Law and Information Technology 5 (Autumn): 249-278

Maurer, Stephen M. (1999) Raw Knowledge: Protecting Technical Databases for Science and Industry. (Proceedings of the Workshop on Promoting Access to Scientific and Technical Data for the Public Interest: An Assessment of Policy Options, January 14-15, 1999; Appendix C). Available online at http://www.nap.edu/html/proceedings_sci_tech/appC.html. (visited May 15, 2000).

Maurer, Stephen & Suzanne Scotchmer "Database Protection: Is It Broken and Should We Fix It?" 284 Science Magazine, (May 14, 1999): 1129-1130. . 1999 May 14;284(5417):1129-30. Available online at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/284/5417/1129". (visited May 15, 2000).

Melnick, W. Joseph. "A Comparative Analysis of Proposals for the Legal protection of Computerized Databases: NAFTA vs. the European Communities." Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 26: 57.

Miller, Philip H. (1991). Note. "Life After Feist: Facts, the First Amendment, and the Copyright Status of Automated Databases." Fordham Law Review 60: 507.

Patterson, L. Ray and Craig Joyce. (1989). "Monopolozing the Law: The Scope of Copyright Protection for Law Reports and Statutory Compilations." UCLA Law Review 36: 719.

Pollack, Malla. (1999). "The Right to Know? Delimiting Database Protection at the Juncture of the Commerce Clause, the Intellectual Property Clause, and the First Amendment." Cardozo Arts and Entertainment Law Journal 17: 47.

Reichman, Jerome H. and Pamela Samuelson. (1997) "Intellectual Property Rights in Data?" Vanderbilt Law Review 50: 51.

Reichman, Jerome H. and Paul F. Uhlir. (1999). "Database Protection at the Crossroads: Recent Developments and Their Impact on Science and Technology." Berkeley Technology Law Journal 14 (Spring): 793.

Rosler, Debra B. (1995). The European Union's Proposal for the Legal Protection of Databases: A New Threat to the Free Flow of Information. High Technology Law Journal 10: 105.

Samuelson, Pamela. (1997). "The U.S. Digital Agenda at WIPO." 37 Virginia Journal of International Law 37: 369.

Samuelson, Pamela. (1997). Response to Tyson-Sherry Paper. (Letter to Howard Coble, October 23, 1997). Available online at http://www.arl.org/info/frn/copy/psamlet.html. (visited May 8, 2000).

Software and Information Industry Association. (1999). Electronic Publishing, Databases and the Internet--A Strong Case For A New IP Right? (Testimony presented at Regional Roundtable on the Protection of Rights of Broadcasting Organizations and on the Protection Of Databases; Vilnius, Lithuania, April 20, 1999). Available online at http://www.siia.net/ga/ip/dbWIPO4-20.htm. (visited May 8, 2000)

Software and Information Industry Association. (1998). Access to Public Information and its Dissemination: Perspectives for Policymakers and the Public in the Information Age. Available online at http://www.siia.net/ga/gip/gipperspectives.htm#page01. (visited May 8, 2000)

Tyson, Laura D'Andrea and Edward F. Sherry, "STATUTORY PROTECTION FOR DATABASES: ECONOMIC AND PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES." Executive Summary Available online at http://www.house.gov/judiciary/41118.htm. (visited May 8, 2000)

von Simson, Charles. (1994). "Feist or Famine: American Database Copyright as an Economic Model for the European Union." Brooklyn Journal of International Law 20: 729.

Wayman, W. Matthew. (1997). "International Database Protection: A Multilateral Treaty Solution to the United States' Database Dilemma. W. Matthew Wayman. Santa Clara Law Review 37 (Spring): 427-466.